Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS21)

This Questionnaire is a short version (21 item) of a 42-item self report instrument designed to measure three related negative emotional states: depression, anxiety and tension/stress. The DASS questionnaire is in the public domain, and may be downloaded from the link below.


Individuals read each statement and circle a number 0, 1, 2 or 3 that indicates how much the statement applied to him/herover the past week.

The rating scale is as follows:

0 Did not apply to me at all

1 Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time

2 Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time

3 Applied to me very much, or most of the time


The DASS yields three subscale scores for depression, anxiety, and tension/stress.

DASS_Anxiety = 2 + 4 + 7 + 9 + 15 + 19 + 20

DASS_Depression = 3 + 5 + 10 + 13 + 16 + 17 + 21

DASS_Stress = 1 + 6 + 8 + 11 + 12 + 14 +18


This is a public domain measure. For more information click here.

The scoring files were written in the R statistical programming language by John Curtin and are free for reuse.


R Scoring Syntax file


Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.) Sydney: Psychology Foundation.

Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour research and therapy, 33(3), 335-343.

Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2005). The short‐form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS‐21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non‐clinical sample. British journal of clinical psychology, 44(2), 227-239.