Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI)

The ESI has three questionnaires: a 451 item,100 item, and 85 item. All three examine various dimensions of externalizing behaviors.


The questionnaire is scored on a 4-item likert scale (True- somewhat true- somewhat false- False). There are many reverse scored questions. You can find this information in the resource files below.


  • Alcohol Problems
  • Alcohol Use
  • Alienation
  • Blame Externalization
  • Boredom Proneness
  • Dependability
  • Destructive Aggression
  • Drug Problems
  • Drug Use
  • Empathy
  • Excitement Seeking
  • Fraud
  • Honesty
  • Impatient Urgency
  • Irresponsibility
  • Marijuana Problems
  • Marijuana Use
  • Physical Aggression
  • Planful Control
  • Problematic Impulsivity
  • Rebelliousness
  • Relational Aggression
  • Theft


ESI-100 Questionnaire pdf

ESI Scoring information

ESI_100 R scoring syntax file


Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., Benning, S. D., & Kramer, M. D. (2007). Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: An integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum. Journal of abnormal psychology, 116(4), 645.

Nelson, L. D., Patrick, C. J., & Bernat, E. M. (2011). Operationalizing proneness to externalizing psychopathology as a multivariate psychophysiological phenotype. Psychophysiology, 48(1), 64-72.

Venables, N. C., & Patrick, C. J. (2012). Validity of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory in a criminal offender sample: Relations with disinhibitory psychopathology, personality, and psychopathic features. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 88.