Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)

The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is a six-item revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. The FTND retains six of the original eight questions on the FTQ, with revised scoring for two of the items.

ITEM CODING

The FTND consists of 6 items that are each rated on a different scale, depending on the nature of the question.

SCALES

The FTND yields 1 primary scales. The higher the score the more dependent on Nicotine the individual taking the questionnaire is. Scale scores are calculated as the sum of respective items. Note that the answers in Item 4 are presented in reverse weighted order, but this item is not reverse scored.

RESOURCE FILES

Questionnaire

FTND Hand Scoring Sheet

FTND Scoring – R Code

REFERENCES

Heatherton, Todd F., Kozlowski, Lynn T., Frecker, Richard C., Fagerstrom, Karl-Olov. (1991). The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: A revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction, 86(9), 1119-1127.

Pomerleau, Cynthia S., Carton, Solange, M., Lutzke, Mary L., Flessland, Karen A. (1994). Reliability of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Addictive Behaviors, 19(1), 33-39.