Monitoring Future Drug Use Survey (MFDU)

The MFDU is an annual nationwide set of surveys of high school seniors using group-administered questionnaires and period follow up questionnaire mailed to randomly selected sub-samples of each senior class cohort. This design examines four types of trends:

  • Changes common to all cohorts in a given historical period
  • developmental changes or age effects that appear consistently in the longitudinal data from all graduating classes
  • changes from one graduating class cohort to another
  • Longitudinal changes reflecting the differential impacts of various important post-high school environments, major role transitions, and individual developmental characteristics


The MFDU has various scales and coding that our lab does not use.




Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Schulenberg, John E. (2006). Monitoring the future Project after seventeen years: Design and procedures. (Paper # 64). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.