Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM)

The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) is comprised of 68 items designed to assess 13 different motivational domains: affiliative attachment, automaticity, loss of control, behavioral choice/melioration, cognitive enhancement, craving, cue exposure/associative processes, negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, social/environmental goads, taste/sensory properties, tolerance, and weight control. The alpha coefficients for the whole scale range from .98-.99, and the individual subscales range from .88-.96.


The WISDM consists of 68 items that are rated on a 7-point Likert scale as follows:

Not true of me at all Extremely true of me
1 2 3 5 6 7


The WISDM yields 13 sub-scales. To calculate the scores of the subscales, take the mean of the items that load onto each subscale. The total scale score is the sum of all of the subscale scores, or a sum of the means for each subscale.

Affiliative Attachment Subscale Description 20, 36, 43, 48, 67
Automaticity Subscale Description 5,19,26,41,55
Loss of Control Subscale Description 6,28,34,62
Behavioral Choice/Melioration Subscale Description 10,21,35,38,46,49,68
Cognitive Enhancement Subscale Description 13,15,24,39,57
Craving Subscale Description 11,29,37,50
Cue Exposure/Associative Processes Subscale Description 4,17,23,40,42,51,59
Negative Reinforcement Subscale Description 7,18,25,32,58,65
Positive Reinforecement Subscale Description 3,8,45,60,64
Social/Environmental Goals Subscale Description 22,30,44,52
Taste/Sensory Processes Subscale Description 1,12,27,33,53,66
Tolerance Subscale Description 9,14,47,54,63
Weight Control Subscale Description 2,16,31,56,61


WISDM Questionnaire
SPSS Scoring Syntax File
R Scoring File


Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Bolt, D. M., Smith, S. S., Lerman, C., Benowitz, N., … & Baker, T. B. (2008). Assessing dimensions of nicotine dependence: an evaluation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10(6), 1009-1020.