Pre-gaming Motives Questionnaire (PGMQ)

The Pre-Gaming Motives Questionnaire is based off The Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQR) and contains 20 reasons why people might be motivated to drink alcoholic beverages, before going out (to do more drinking). Participants rate on a 5-point scale how frequently each of the 20 listed reasons motivate them to pre-game. The measure yields four scale scores reflecting different motives for pre-gaming.


The PGMQ consists of 20 items that are rated on a 5-point Likert scale as follows:

Almost Never/Never Some of the time Half of the time Most of the time Almost Always/Always
1 2 3 4 5


The PGMQ yields four primary scales. Description of the scales and item loadings are listed below. Scale scores are calculated as the sum of respective items. No items are reverse scored.

Social (SOC) This scale has items reflecting social motives for alcohol use. 3, 5, 11, 14, 16
Coping (COP) This scale has items reflecting coping motives for alcohol use. 1, 4, 6, 15, 17
Enhancement (ENH) This scale has items reflecting enhancement motives for alcohol use. 7, 9, 10, 13, 18
Conformity (CON) This scale has items pertaining to external social pressures that push an individual to conform and engage in alcohol use. 2, 8, 12, 19, 20



R Scoring Syntax file

SPSS Scoring Syntax file

Scoring info


Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for Alcohol Use Among Adolescents: Development and Validation of a Four-Factor Model. Psychological Assessment, 6 (2), 117-128.